Ideally, committing a crime is followed by expiation, which is not the same as punishment because expiation is the mental or physical pain caused by punishment, in other words, the consequence of punishment on the offender. As for punishment, there are two types, one of which is external punishment, that is, some kind of external force, e.g. a state, the Church, a god, the head of family, a domina escort, etc. imposes punishment on the sinner. A special kind of punishment is the one that occurs through various sexual practices, either because the subject likes to punish or because s/he likes to be punished, and this is explicitly related to sexuality, although it should be noted that in extreme cases, sexuality can even be pushed into background in BDSM sessions. The other type of punishment is the remorse of the sinner or inner pain as a consequence of committed sin, which is a distressing, automatic punishment, and is often much more painful than external punishment. Ideally, both elements are included in a punishment, but of course this is rarely the case. Internal punishment, remorse can dominate the extent of external punishment, when the sinner suffers more from inner torments than from the physical punishment of, say, imprisonment, and vice versa. This internal punishment or expiation may also manifest itself in strange sexual practices, namely in sexual masochism, when the sex purchaser of high societal position, most likely to be a male, has himself humiliated by a sex worker due to his remorse because he is likely to do so to the subordinates in the world of work. But, as I have said, punishment can be imposed, at the highest level, by the state in case of breaching norms, whereas in the past, the church also had the power to impose punishment if we only think of the terrible torture of the dreaded Inquisition.
In legal context, the punishment is what assigned to a defendant found guilty by a court, or fixed by law for a particular offence, so it has formal procedure. Punishment can be non-formal as well, which always depends on some informal authority, the best example of which is the disciplinary punishment in a family or school, ostracism within a group or the sadomachoistic séances in the world of perverted sex. According to this division of punishment, there can be physical and psychological, that is, physical and mental pain as punishment. In sadistic-masochistic sexual practices, there are a number of different forms of physical or corporal punishment, which represent various methods of inflicting physical pain. The most typical way to achieve pain and pleasure simultaneously is to hold breath during sexual pleasure, which can easily lead to death by asphyxiation, as it is often made public by the press. The act of strangulation is a frequent sexual side-activity, especially by men who dominate their partner, which is often included in porn content and largely influences the sexual habits of young porn users. Common sadomasochistic habits fall into two main categories: mild and severe painful sexual practices. Mild include psychological distress, humiliation, filthy language, enjoying and taking the advantage of the partner’s defencelessness, such as bondage, bedside clamping, blindfolding, and the use of mild sexual perversions, such as bites, slight whipping or spanking, the application of various tweezers and electrodes and, finally, the application of hot wax pain (dripping of wax). Extreme sadomasochistic sexual practices can lead to intense pain, such as trampling on testicles and rectal penetration with oversized dildo, in the latter of which a male is the receiver, reaching intense physical and psychological pains.
From a religious point of view, punishment has to be divided into two subtypes: the worldly and the afterlife punishment, that is, a sinner has to deal with not only worldly consequences, but his or her sins are also recorded in the other world where they must do penance for their wrongdoings. Worldly punishment is determined by the legal system of a given society depending on how serious the crime is, whereas the afterlife punishment for Christians falls into two categories, according to the place of penitence. One of them is Hell, where punishment is eternal suffering with various torments, and the another is Purgatory, where the degree of suffering is very similar to that of Hell, but it is not eternal, that is, the length of the punishment depends on the individual's amount of guilt committed in his or her lifetime, therefore, the more sinful one is within a certain limit, after that s/he would go to Hell, the longer s/he would have to suffer the purifying fire, after which s/he would be purged and admitted to a world without suffering, Heaven. The name itself means purification from the Latin 'purificatio'.